### Insegnamenti erogati dal corso di dottorato in Fisica

#### Computational Methods for Tomographic Image Reconstruction in Medical Imaging

- Area: Applied Physics
- Teacher: Nicola Belcari, Daniele Panetta
- Programmed Period: 15 February – 15 May
- Structure: 40 hours total
- Language: English

The course provides an introduction to the problem of image reconstruction from projections, with particular emphasis on Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Even though this topic is often seen as a branch of pure mathematics, referred to as Tomographic Reconstruction, it is indeed a strongly multidisciplinary domain involving, physics, engineering, computer science and, of course, any discipline relevant for the final application (not just medical) for which the above-mentioned imaging modalities are used.

After an introduction to CT and PET imaging principles and related technologies the student will be guided through the mathematical formalization of the image reconstruction process and several computational techniques are introduced and discussed. About 50% of the hours will be dedicated to practical exercises on image reconstruction. A background of scientific programming in Python/Numpy is necessary to get a fruitful understanding of the sample code, listings and Jupyter notebooks provided during the course, even though this is not required for the comprehension of the theory itself.

Lectures will be held in class twice a week.

At the end of the course, students are expected to individually complete a project in which they provide a practical solution to an image reconstruction problem, starting from simulated and/or experimental projection data.

##### More details

- Elearning webpage
- Registro delle lezioni
- Detailed program

#### Introduction to Astrophysics

- Area: Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Teachers: M. Cignoni, S. Degl’Innocenti W. Del Pozzo, P. Paolicchi, P. Prada Moroni, V. Roccatagliata, S. Shore
- Programmed Period: 21 February – 31 May
- Structure: 40 hours total
- Language: English

The course provides an introductory overview of key astrophysical processes and questions, such as planetary formation and properties, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, the interstellar medium and star formation, galactic evolution and cosmology, and some modern aspects of gravitational physics. The course will start the last week of February and end on the last week of May.

General program:

- Solar System, Protoplanetary disks and planets;
- Gas dynamics, instabilities and turbulence;
- Star formation and accretion processes;
- Stellar structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis;
- Relevant topics of galactic and extragalactic physics;
- Gravitational waves in relativistic and high energy processes.

##### More details

- Elearning webpage
- Registro delle lezioni
- Detailed program

#### Non-perturbative Aspects of Quantum Field Theories

- Area: Theoretical Physics
- Teachers: Stefano Bolognesi, Massimo D’Elia, Ettore Vicari, Alessandro Vichi
- Programmed period: 2 November – 31 January
- Structure: 4 modules of 20 hours each
- Language: English

The purpose of the course is to provide a thorough knowledge about the main approaches used in theoretical physics to study strongly coupled system, which cannot be investigated by standard perturbative tools. Within the standard model of particle physics, this happens for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at the low energy hadronic scale. Analogous non-perturbative approaches are required in condensed matter and in the theory of critical phenomena, where one usually deals with strongly coupled systems. The course is divided in four parts, each of them corresponding to 3 CFU, which are related to each other by a common language and tools and by various common aspects, but are anyway self-consistent by themselves. The first part (S. Bolognesi) is dedicated to the investigation of the role of Topological Solitons in QFT; the second part (M. D’Elia) deals with the Lattice formulation of Quantum Gauge Theories; the third part (E. Vicari) is dedicated to Renormalization Group Theory and the Large N Expansion; the fourth part (A. Vichi) focusses on anomalies in QFT and Conformal Field Theories. The student can make a selection among these parts. The expected competences to be acquired by the student, to be verified in the final oral exam, consist both in specific knowledges about the various topics and in the ability to connect and interrelate different concepts.

##### More details

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- Registro delle lezioni
- Detailed program

#### Quantum Liquids

- Area: Condensed Matter Physics
- Teacher: Maria Luisa Chiofalo
- Programmed Period: 15 February – 15 May
- Structure: 60 hours total (with the possibility to select 40 h)
- Language: English

At the course end, the student will have developed the following conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on the physics of quantum liquids and fluids:

- Knowledge and understanding of advanced theoretical methods aimed at predict and characterize the physics of quantum liquids, link them in a conceptual map, and classify them according to their functionality to solve specific types of problems. Among the theoretical methods are: linear response theory, theory of measurements and correlation functions, quantum hydrodynamics, static and time-dependent density functional theory, theory of Green’s functions, bosonization, introductory elements on methods for driven-dissipative open quantum systems, elements to relate these theoretical methods to quantum simulational methods.
- Knowledge about how a quantum technologies “toolbox” works in the most popular experimental platforms where they are currently engineered, such as: quantum gases, superconducting circuits, light fluids in optical cavities, 2D semiconductor systems. Catch the usefulness of such platforms to investigate problems in condensed matter and in fundamental physics.

Students will select 40 out of the 60 hours according to their needs and interests. The 60 hours course is composed of three parts: (1) Measurements and correlation functions [8 hours], (2) Theoretical Methods [30 hours] and applications to selected phenomena [14 hours], and (3) Case studies for quantum technologies [8 h].

Students can decide whether to attend part (3) and, within part (2), they can choose the methods, whether they wish to attend the basic or advanced treatments, and which applications they like.

Competences

- Recognize and appreciate in the complexity of the physical behavior of quantum liquids, the simplicity of their macroscopic properties.
- Organize and link this disciplinary knowledge in a same conceptual map with thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and phase transitions, quantum mechanics, field theories.
- Connect the conceptual comprehension and formal setting of the problem with the available phenomenology and experimental facts in terms of essential ideas, and envisage the applications.
- Ability to formalize and treat the concepts according to the different methods and procedures developed in the course.
- Evaluate with critical thinking specialized research articles on the course topics.
- Create understanding on quantum liquids as implemented in different experimental platforms.
- Communicate in effective and efficient manner the developed ideas and knowledge.
- Work in autonomous manner, developing awareness of the conceptual learning map, and build self-evaluation capacity
- Abilities for team working

##### More details

- Elearning webpage
- Registro delle lezioni
- Detailed program

#### Scientific Writing for Physicists

- Area: cross-sectoral
- Teachers: Steve N. Shore
- Programmed period: Spring 2022
- Structure: 4-6 hours divided in two afternoons
- Language: English

**Requirements:** there will be required readings (distributed in advance and also during the session), assigned project; requirement of interactive participation.**Overview:** During the first part, the general issues of scientific writing will be covered. In all cases detailed examples will be provided and prepared for the second part when you will bring your work for analysis. There will be assigned work after the each day that will be due for the next session. Please allow time for the exercises, the material will be of little use without the individual work.

- Scientific journals: an overview editorial-referee structure of journals – the submission and review process at different journals and how it’s developed, overview
- Structure of a paper, details of construction: abstracts, introductions, discussions
- Citations and the literature
- Ethical issues: this is a particularly important part of the course
- Statistics, experimental details, how complete does the paper need to be?
- Graphs, figures: preparation issues (this is NOT as simple as it seems)
- The submission process – preparing the paper
- Responding to a referee report(s)
- Facilities, acknowledgments
- How to prepare a referee report
- Grant proposals, various examples
- Conference presentations: preparing your talk (additional material: conference proceedings: preparing the paper
- Internal refereeing (collaborations) (this will take some time, be prepared with examples of your own for the discussions)
- Posting papers online: when, how, why?

##### More details

- Elearning webpage
- Registro delle lezioni
- Detailed program

#### Statistical Analysis Lab.

- Area: Experimental Particle Physics
- Teacher: Giovanni Punzi
- Programmed Period: 14 February – 31 March
- Structure: 40 hours
- Language: English

Lectures will be held in class twice a week. A few representative statistical problems will be presented, requiring numerical methods for their solution.

In addition to discussion of general methodologies, students will be given specific directions about the problems and will then work on them invidually. Each student can perform their work using their own preferred software platform. It is a precondition of this course that students have access, and the needed knowledge to use a programmable software system capable of performing simple calculations, random number generation, histogramming and plotting. Students are expected to turn in the results at the next class, where they will be discussed, and will eventually produce written summaries.

##### More details

- Elearning webpage
- Registro delle lezioni
- Detailed program